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  • The supine body position is flat and horizontal, with ears slightly below the water surface.
  • The waterline is around the natural hairline with eyes looking forward and down.
  • If the position of the head is raised it will cause the position of the hips and legs to lower which in turn will increase frontal resistance.
  • If the head position is too low it will cause the legs to raise and the kick to lose its efficiency.
  • Shoulders remain at the surface and roll with the arm action. Hips also roll with the stroke technique, close to the water surface and the legs remain in line with the body.


  • Head should be tilted up so that water is along the hairline just above the goggles.
  • Head should follow the of the roll body


  • Fingers should be held loosely together.
  • On entry the hand should be tilted with the thumb downwards.
  • The hand should enter the water in line with the shoulder.
  • During the pull the hand should describe an S.
  • At the end of the pull the arm should be straight and the thumb should graze the thigh.
  • As the arm recovers from the water the elbow should be held high.


  • Legs should be straight and toes pointed.
  • Leg action should be continuous.
  • Kick should start in the hips.


  • The head should turn to the side only enough such that the mouth is just clear of the water.
  • Breathing should be done every three arm strokes.
  • While the mouth is under the water swimmers should be breathing out.


  • Push – Glide – Kick – Arms – Breathe
  • With float  kicking on front breathing to both sides
  • With float kicking on side
  • In pairs swimmers face each other with float between them – teach kicks to try to move partner back
  • Kicking deep / shallow / gently / hard
  • Kicking with fins
  • Extended ‘doggie paddle’ developing long underwater phase of the stroke.
  • Arms only with pullbouy between the legs (for more able swimmers)
  • Catch-up. Left arm remains extended in front until the right hand touches it as it enters the water. The right arm remains extended while the left arm pulls and recovers and enters to touch the right hand etc.
  • Single arm crawl. Right arm for set distance with left arm extended then switch to left arm pulling and right extended.
  • Single arm crawl, 3 right pulls – 3 left pulls etc.
  • Full stroke but drawing the thumb up the side on the recovery phase to the armpit.
  • ‘Fists’ Full stroke with fists clenched.
  • Stroke count. Count number of strokes over length then reduce by one each subsequent length. (good for encouraging strong pull and glide)


  • Continuous arm motion
  • Hands held relaxed and fingers together
  • Bilateral breathing
  • Continuous kicking
  • Water level just above goggles
  • High elbow on recovery
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